Mpala Research Centre Publications



Aizen, M. A., Aguiar, S., Biesmeijer, J.C., Garibaldi, L.A., Inouye, D.W., Jung, C., Martins, D.J., Medel, R., Morales, C.L., Ngo, H., Pauw, A., Paxton, R.J., Sáez, A., & Seymour, C.L. (2019). Global Agricultural Productivity Is Threatened by Increasing Pollinator Dependence Without a Parallel Increase in Crop Diversification. Global Change Biology, 25(10), 3516-3527. doi:10.1111/gcb.14736

Augustine, D.J., B.J. Wigley, J. Ratnam, S. Kibet, M. Nyangito, & M. Sankaran. (2019). Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna. Ecology and Evolution, online early. doi:10.1002/ece3.5750

Boyle, J.H., Martins, D.J., Musili, P.M., & Pierce, N.E. (2019). Population genomics and demographic sampling of the ant-plant Vachellia drepanolobium and its symbiotic ants from sites across its range in East Africa. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 206. doi:10.3389/fevo.2019.00206

Cobb, A. & Cobb, S. (2019). Do zebra stripes influence thermoregulation? Journal of Natural History, 53(13-14), 863-879. doi:10.1080/00222933.2019.1607600

Coverdale, T.C., McGeary, I.J., O'Connell, R.D., Palmer, T.M., Goheen, J.R., Sankaran, M., Augustine, D.J., Ford, A.T., & Pringle, R.M. (2019). Strong but opposing effects of associational resistance and susceptibility on defense phenotype in an African savanna plant. Oikos, online early. doi:10.1111/oik.06644

Crawford, C., Volenec, Z., Sisanya, M., Kibet, R., & Rubenstein, D. (2019). Behavioral and Ecological Implications of Bunched, Rotational Cattle Grazing in East African Savanna Ecosystem. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 72(1), 204-209. doi: 10.1016/j.rama.2018.07.016

DeCarlo, K.F. & Caylor, K.K. (2019). Biophysical effects on soil crack morphology in a faunally active dryland vertisol. Geoderma, 334, 134-145. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.07.042

Ellis, V.A., Sari, E.H.R., Rubenstein, D.R., Dickerson, R.C., Bensch, S., & Ricklefs, R.E. (2019). The global biogeography of avian haemosporidian parasites is characterized by local diversification and intercontinental dispersal. Parasitology, 146(2), 213–219. doi:10.1017/S0031182018001130.

Forbes, E.S., Cushman, J.H., Burkepile, D.E., Young, T.P., Klopea, M., & Young, H.S. (2019). Synthesizing the effects of large, wild herbivores on ecosystem function. Functional Ecology, 33(9),1597-1610. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.13376

Gill, A.B., Musili, P. M., Kurukura, S., Hassan, A. A., Goheen, J. R., Kress, W.J., Kuzmina, M., Pringle, R.M., & Kartzinel, T.R. (2019). Plant DNA-barcode library and community phylogeny for a semi-arid East African savanna. Molecular Ecology Resources, 19(4), 838-846. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.13001

Graham, S.I., Kinnaird, M.F., O’Brien, T.G., Vågen, T.-G., Winowiecki, L.A., Young, T.P., & Young, H.S. (2019). Effects of land-use change on community diversity and composition are highly variable among functional groups. Ecological Applications, 29(7), e01973. doi:10.1002/eap.1973

Isbell, L.A., Bidner, L.R., Omondi, G., Mutinda, M., & Matsumoto-Oda A. (2019). Capture, immobilization, and Global Positioning System collaring of olive baboons (Papio anubis) and vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus): Lessons learned and suggested best practices. American Journal of Primatology, 81(6), e22997. doi:10.1002/ajp.22997

Kartzinel, T.R., Hsing, J.C., Musili, P.M., Brown, B.R.P., & Pringle, R.M. (2019). Covariation of diet and gut microbiome in African megafauna. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1905666116

LaMalfa, E.M., R.L. Sensenig, D.M. Kimuyu, T.P. Young, C. Riginos, and K.E. Veblen. (2019). Tree resprout dynamics following fire depend on herbivory by wild ungulate herbivores. Journal of Ecology, 107(5), 2493-2502. doi:10.1111/1365-2745.13186

Louthan, A., Valencia, E., Martins, D.J., Guy, T., Goheen, J., Palmer, T., & Doak, D. (2019). Large mammals generate both top-down effects and extended trophic cascades on floral-visitor assemblages. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 35(4), 185-198. doi:10.1017/S0266467419000142

Mutinda, M., Crofoot, M.C., Kishbaugh, J.C., Hayek, L.C., Zimmerman, D., Tunseth, D.A., & (2019). Blood Biochemical Reference Intervals for Free-Ranging Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) in Kenya. International Journal of Primatology, 40(2), 187-196. doi:10.1007/s10764-018-0074-2

Mutuku, P.M. & Kenfack, D. (2019). Effect of local topographic heterogeneity on tree species assembly in an Acacia-dominated African savanna. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 35(2), 46-56. doi:10.1017/S0266467419000014

Ostfeld, J.K. & Keesing, F. (2019). Impacts of large mammals on movements of the pouched mouse (Saccostomus mearnsi) in central Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 57(1), 2-9. doi:10.1111/aje.12549

Otieno, T.O, Goheen, J.R., Webala, P.W., Mwangi, A., Osuga, I.M., & Ford, A.T. (2019). Human- and risk-mediated browsing pressure by sympatric antelope in an African savanna. Biological Conservation, 232, 59-65. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2019.01.028

Papageorgiou, D., Christensen, C., Gall, G.E.C., Klarevas-Irby, J.A., Nyaguthii, B., Couzin, I.D., & Farine, D.R. (2019). The multilevel society of a small-brained bird. Current Biology, 29(21), R1120-1121. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.09.072

Smith, D.A.S., Traut, W., Martin, S.H., Ireri, P., Omufwoko, K.S., Ffrench-Constant, R., & Gordon, I.J. (2019). Neo sex chromosomes, colour polymorphism and male-killing in the African queen butterfly, (Danaus chrysippus L.). Insects, 10(9), 291. doi:10.3390/insects10090291

Suraci, J. P., Frank, L.G., Oriol-Cotterill, A., Ekwanga, S., Williams, T. M., & Wilmers, C. C. (2019). Behavior-specific habitat selection by African lions may promote their persistence in a human-dominated landscape. Ecology, 100(4), e02644. doi:10.1002/ecy.2644

Tamashiro, R.A., Milligan, P.D., & Palmer, T.M. (2019). Left out in the cold: temperature-dependence of defense in an African ant–plant mutualism. Ecology, 100(6), e02712. doi:10.1002/ecy.2712

Taniguchi, H., Isbell, L.A., Bidner, L.R., & Matsumoto-Oda, A. (2019). Complete rectal prolapse in wild Anubis baboons (Papio anubis). Journal of Medical Primatology. 48:179-181. doi:10.1111/jmp.12405

Unks, R. R., King, E. G., German, L. A., Wachira, N. P., & Nelson, D. R. (2019). Unevenness in scale mismatches: institutional change, pastoralist livelihoods, and herding ecology in Laikipia, Kenya. Geoforum, 99(74-87). doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2018.12.010

Unks, R. R., King, E. G., Nelson, D. R., Wachira, N. P., & German, L. A. (2019). Constraints, multiple stressors, and stratified adaptation: pastoralist livelihood vulnerability in a semi-arid wildlife conservation context in central Kenya. Global Environmental Change, 54, 124-134. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.11.013

Welsh, E.C., Kessing, F., & Allan, B.F. (2019). Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorhynchus, Buphagus africanus) and tick abundances in acaricide‐treated livestock areas. African Journal of Ecology, 57(1), 155-159. doi:10.1111/aje.12560

Whitaker, M.R.L., Baker, C.C.M., Salzman, S.M., Martins, D.J., & Pierce, N.E. Combining Stable Isotope Analysis With DNA Metabarcoding Improves Inferences of Trophic Ecology. PLOS One, 14(7), e0219070. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0219070

Wigley, B.J., Coetsee, C., Augustine, D., Ratnam, J., Hattas, D., & Sankaran, M. (2019). A thorny issue: woody plant defence and growth in an East African savanna. Journal of Ecology, 107(4), 1839-1851. doi:10.1111/1365-2745.13140

Zimmerman, D.M., Hardgrove, E.H., von Fricken, M.E., Kamau, J., Chai, D., Mutura, S., Kivali, V., Hussein, F., Ambala, P., Surmat, A., Maina, J.G., & Knauf, S. (2019). Antibodies against Treponema pallidum demonstrate that yaws is endemic in nonhuman primates in Laikipia County, Kenya. In review.


Boyle, J. H., Martins, D. J., Pelaez, J., Musili, P. M., Kibet, S., Ndung’u, S. K., Kenfack, D., & Pierce, N. E. (2018). Polygyny does not explain the superior competitive ability of dominant ant associates in the African ant-plant, Acacia (Vachellia) drepanolobium. Ecology & Evolution 8:1441–1450.

González, J. B., Pepitas, R. H., Franken, O., Kiers, E. T., Veblen, K. E., & Brody, A. K. (2018) Herbivore removal reduces influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and tolerance in an East African savanna. Oecologia, 1-11.

Guindre-Parker, S. & Rubenstein, D. R. (2018). Testosterone, social status and parental care in a cooperatively breeding bird. Hormones and Behavior, 97, 85-93

Isbell, L. A., Bidnerac, L. R., Van Cleave, E. K., Matsumoto-Oda, A., & Crofoot, M. C. (2018). GPS-identified vulnerabilities of savannah-woodland primates to leopard predation and their implications for early hominins. Journal of Human Evolution, 118, 1-13.

Keesing, F., Ostfeld, R. S., Young, T. P., & Allan, B. F. (2018). Cattle and rainfall affect tick abundance in central Kenya. Parasitology, 45, 345-354.

Keesing, F., Ostfeld, R., Young, T., & Allan, B. (2018). Cattle and rainfall affect tick abundance in central Kenya. Parasitology, 145(3), 345-354.

Kinga, G. W., Mironga, J., & Odadi, W.O. (2018). Analysis of the spatial relationship between cattle and wild ungulates across different land-use systems in a tropical savanna landscape. International Journal of Ecology, 2018, 2072617.

Louthan, A. M., Pringle, R. M., Goheen, J. R., Palmer, T. M., Morris, W. F., & Doak, D. F. (2018). Aridity weakens population-level effects of multiple species interactions on Hibiscus meyeri. PNAS, 115, 543-548.

Prior, K. M. & Palmer, T. M. (2018). Economy of scale: third partner strengthens a keystone ant-plant mutualism. Ecology, 99, 335–346.

Riginos, C., Porensky, L. M., Veblen, K. E., & Young, T. P. (2018). Domestic herbivores promote long-term stability and resilience in a savanna plant community. Ecological Applications, 28, 323–335.

Ruiz-Guajardo, J. C., Schnabel, A., McCallum, B., Arnaiz, A. O., Baldock, K. C. R., Stone, G. N. (2018). Differences in pollination syndromes and the frequency of autonomous delayed selfing between co-flowering Hibiscus aponeurus (Sprague and Hutch) and H. flavifolius (Ulbr) from Kenya. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 22(3), 21-34.

Sitters, J., & Olde Venterink, H. (2018). A stoichiometric perspective of the effect of herbivore dung on ecosystem functioning. Ecology and Eovlution, 8, 1043–1046.

Tucker, M. A., Böhning-Gaese, K., Fagan, W. F., Fryxell, J. M., Van Moorter, B., Alberts, S.C., … Mueller, T. (2018). Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements. Science, 359, 466–469.

Young, T. P., Riginos, C., Veblen, K. E., Odadi, W. O., Kimuyu, D., Porensky, L. M., Young, H., & Charles, G. K. (2018). Relationships between cattle and biodiversity in a multi-use landscape revealed by the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE). Rangeland Ecology and Management.



Allan, B., Tallis, H., Chaplin-Kramer, R., Huckett, S., Kowal, G., Musengezi, J., Okanga, S., Ostfeld, R. S., Schieltz, J., Warui, C. M., Wood, S. A., Keesing F. (2017). Can integrating wildlife and livestock enhance the delivery of ecosystem services in central Kenya? Frontiers in Ecology & the Environment, 15, 328–335.

Baker, C. C. M., Martins, D. J., Pelaez, J. N., Billen, J. P. J., Pringle, A., Frederickson, M. E., & Pierce, N. E. (2017). Distinctive fungal communities in an obligate African ant plant mutualism. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 284, 20162501.

Browne, A. S., Fèvre, E. M., Kinnaird, M., Muloi, D. M., Wang, C. A., Larsen, P. S., O'Brien, T. & Deem, S. L. (2017). Serosurvey of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Laikipia County, Kenya. Zoonoses & Public Health, 64, 543–549.

Charles, G. K., Porensky, L. M., Veblen, K. E., Riginos, C. & Young, T. P. (2017). Herbivore effects on productivity vary by guild: cattle increase mean productivity while wildlife reduce variability. Ecological Applications, 27, 143-155.

Dohn, J., Augustine, D. J., Hanan, N. P., Ratnam, J., & Sankaran, M. (2017). Spatial vegetation patterns and neighborhood competition among woody plants in an East African savanna. Ecology, 98, 478–488.

Dyck, M. A. (2017). Restoration of native baboon-plant mutualisms following biocontrol of the invasive Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia stricta) in Kenya (Honors Thesis). University of Wyoming.

Farine, D. R., Strandburg-Peshkin, A., Couzin, I. D., Berger-Wolf, T. Y., & Crofoot, M. C. (2017). Individual variation in local interaction rules can explain emergent patterns of spatial organization in wild baboons. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284(1853).

Hauck, S. & Rubenstein, D. I. (2017). Pastoralist societies in flux: A conceptual framework analysis of herding and land use among the Mukugodo Maasai of Kenya. Pastoralism-Research Policy & Practice, 7, 18.

Isbell, L. A. & Etting, S. F. (2017). Scales drive visual detection, attention, and memory of snakes in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). Primates, 58(1), 121-129.

Isbell, L. A., Bidner, L. R., Crofoot, M. C., Matsumoto-Oda, A., Farine, D. R. (2017). GPS-identified, low-level nocturnal activity of vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Laikipia, Kenya. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 164, 203-211.

Kimiti, D. W. (2017). The global land potential knowledge system: Use of mobile phone applications in the evaluation and prediction of restoration outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico.

Kimiti, D. W., Hodge, A.-M. C., Herrick, J. E., Beh, A. W., & Abbott, L. E. (2017). Rehabilitation of community-owned, mixed-use rangelands: lessons from the Ewaso ecosystem in Kenya. Plant Ecology, 218, 23–37.

Kimuyu, D. M., Sensenig, R. L., Chira, R. M., Githaiga, J. M. & Young, T. P. (2017). Spatial scales influence long-term response of herbivores to prescribed burning in a savanna ecosystem. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 54, 935–944.

Kimuyu, D. M., Veblen, K. E., Riginos, C., Chira, R. M., Githaiga, J. M. & Young. T. P. (2017). Influence of cattle on browsing and grazing wildlife varies with rainfall and presence of megaherbivores. Ecological Applications, 27(3), 786-798

Li, S., Levina, N. E., Soderberg, K., Dennis, K. J., Caylor, K. K. (2017). Triple oxygen isotope composition of leaf waters in Mpala, central Kenya. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 468, 38–50.

Long, R. A., Wambua, A., Goheen, J. R., Palmer, T. M. (2017). Climatic variation modulates the indirect effects of large herbivores on smallmammal habitat use. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 739–748.

Ndeereh, D., Muchemi, G., Thaiyah, A., Otiende, M., Angelone-Alasaad, S. & Jowers, M.J. (2017). Molecular survey of Coxiella burnetii in wildlife and ticks at wildlife–livestock interfaces in Kenya. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 72, 277-289.

Odadi, W. O., Fargione, J., & Rubenstein, D. I. (2017). Vegetation, wildlife and livestock responses to planned grazing management in an African pastoral landscape. Land Degradation & Development, 28, 2030–2038.

Odadi, W. O., Kimuyu, D. M., Veblen, K. E., Riginos, C., & Young, T. P. (2017). Fire-induced negative responses of cattle to shared foraging with native ungulates in an African savanna. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54, 935–944.

 Palmer, T. M., Riginos, C., Damiani, R., Morgan, N., Lemboi, J., Lengingiro, J., Ruiz Guajardo, J. C., & Pringle, R. M. (2017). Influence of neighboring plants on the dynamics of an ant-acacia protection mutualism. Ecology, 9, 3034-3043.

Petipas, R. H., González, J. B., Brody, A. M., & Palmer, T. M. (2017). Habitat-specific AMF symbioses enhance drought tolerance of a native Kenyan grass. Acta Oecologia, 78, 71-78.

Piantadosi, S. T., & Cantlon, J. F. (2017). True numerical cognition in the wild. Psychological Science, 28(4), 462-469.

Pringle, R. M. & Tarnita, C. E. (2017). Spatial self-organization of ecosystems: integrating multiple mechanisms of regular-pattern formation. Annual Review of Entomology, 62, 359–377.

Ruiz-Guajardo, J. C., Grossenbacher, D. L., Grosberg, R. K., Palmer T. M., & Stanton, M. L. (2017). Impacts of worker density in colony-level aggression, expansion, and survival of the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae. Ecological Monographs, 87, 246–259.

Schieltz, J. M., Okanga, S., Allan, B. F., & Rubenstein, D. I. (2017). GPS tracking cattle as a monitoring tool for conservation and management. African Journal of Range & Forage Science, 34, 173-177.

Sensenig, R. L., Kimuyu, D. K., Ruiz Guajardo, J. C., Veblen, K. E., Riginos, C., & Young, T. P. (2017). Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species. Ecology, 98, 1455-1464.

Sharaf, M. R., Akbar, S. A., Aldawood, A. S., & Hita Garcia, F. (2017). Review of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) from the Arabian Peninsula. African Invertebrates, 58(2), 21-37.

Tarnita, C. E., Bonachela, J. A., Sheffer, E., Guyton, J. A., Coverdale, T. C. Long R. A., & Pringle, R. M. (2017). A theoretical foundation for multi-scale regular vegetation patterns. Nature, 541, 398-401.

Titcomb, G., Allan, B. F., Ainsworth, T., Henson, L., Hedlund, T., Pringle, R. M., Palmer, T. M., Njoroge, L., Campana, M. G., Fleischer, R. C., Naisikie Mantas, J., Young, H. S., (2017). Interacting effects of wildlife loss and climate on ticks and tick-borne disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 284, 20170475.

Williams, A. E., Worsley-Tonks, K. E. L., Ezenwaac, V. O. (2017). Drivers and consequences of variation in individual social connectivity. Animal Behaviour, 133, 1-9.

Wilmers, C. C., Isbell, L. A., Suraci, J. & Williams, T. M. (2017). Energetics-informed behavioral states reveal the drive to kill in African leopards. Ecosphere, 8, e01850.

Young, H. S., McCauley, D. J., Dirzo, R., Nunn, C. L., Agwanda, B., Campana, M., Fleischer, R., Castillo, E.O., Salkeld, D., Lambin, E., Goheen, J. R., Palmer, T. M., Pringle, R. M., Riginos, C., & Helgen, K. M. (2017). Interacting effects of land-use and climate on rodent-borne disease in central Kenya. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 372(1722), 20160116.

Yurco, K. (2017). Herders and herdsmen: The remaking of pastoral livelihoods in Laikipia, Kenya. Pastoralism-Research Policy & Practice, 7, 15.


Abonyo, E. A., Maniania, N. K., Warui, C. M., Kokwaro, E. D., Palmer, T. M., Doak, D. F., & Brody, A. K. (2016). Effects of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on non-target ants associated with Odontotermes spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) termite mounds in Kenya. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 36, 128-134.

Alphayo, L., Wasonga, O. V., Odadi, W. O., & Ngugi, R. K. (2016). Differences of soil properties between planned and unplanned grazing sites in semi-arid pastoral rangelands of northern Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development, 5(13), 15–23.

Baker, C. C. M., Bittleston, L. S., Sanders, J. G., & Pierce, N. E. (2016). Dissecting host-associated communities with DNA barcodes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 371(1702), 20150328.

Barnier, F., Duncan, P., Fritz, H., Blanchard, P., Rubenstein, D. I., & Pays, O. (2016). Between-gender differences in vigilance do not necessarily lead to differences in foraging-vigilance tradeoffs. Oecologia, 181(3), 757-68

Brubaker, A. S., & Coss, R. G. (2016). Effects of single- and mixed-species group composition on the flight initiation distances of Plains and Grevy’s Zebras. Ethology, 122(7), 531–541.

Campana, M. G., Parker, L. D., Hawkins, M. T. R., Young, H. S., Helgen, K. M., Gunther, M. S., Woodroffe, R., Maldonado, J. E., & Fleischer, R. C. (2016). Genome sequence, population history, and pelage genetics of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). BMC Genomics, 17(1), 1013.

Coverdale, T. C., Kartzinel, T. R., Grabowski, K. L., Shriver, R. K., Hassan, A. A., Goheen, J. R., Palmer, T. M., & Pringle, R. M. (2016). Elephants in the understory: Opposing direct and indirect effects of consumption and ecosystem engineering by megaherbivores. Ecology, 97(11), 3219–3230.

Ezenwa, V. O., & Snider, M. H. (2016). Reciprocal relationships between behaviour and parasites suggest that negative feedback may drive flexibility in male reproductive behaviour. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 283, 20160423.

Farine, D. R., Strandburg-Peshkin, A., Berger-Wolf, T., Ziebart, B., Brugere, I., Li, J., & Crofoot, M. C. (2016). Both nearest neighbours and long-term affiliates predict individual locations during collective movement in wild baboons. Scientific Reports, 6, 27704.

Gawriluk, T. R. Simkin, J., Thompson, K. L., Biswas, S., Clare-Salzler, Z., Kimani, J. M., Kiama, S. G., Ezenwa V. O., Smith, J. J., and Seifert, A. W. (2016). Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals. Nature Communications, 7, 11164.

Ghai, R. R., Mutinda, M., & Ezenwa, V. O. (2016). Limited sharing of tick-borne hemoparasites between sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. Veterinary Parasitology, 226, 167–173.

Goldenberg, S. Z., Oduor, S., Margaret, F. K., Daballen, D., Douglas-Hamilton, I., & Wittemyer, G. (2016). Evidence of strong spatial segregation between elephant subpopulations in the contiguous Laikipia–Samburu ecosystem in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 54, 261–264.

Gower, D. B., Dell’Angelo, J., McCord, P. F., Caylor, K. K., & Evans, T. P. (2016). Modeling ecohydrological dynamics of smallholder strategies for food production in dryland agricultural systems. Environmental Research Letters, 11(11), 115005.

Guerra, A. S., Eckerlin, R. P., Dowling, A. P. G., Durden, L. A., Robbins, R. G., Dittmar, K., Helgen, K. M., Agwanda, B., Allan, B. F., Hedlund, T., & Young, H. S. (2016). Host-parasite associations in small mammal communities in semiarid savanna ecosystems of East Africa. Journal of Medical Entomology, 53(4), 851–860.

IPBES (2016). Summary for policymakers of the assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services on pollinators, pollination and food production. S.G. Potts, V. L. Imperatriz-Fonseca, H. T. Ngo, J. C. Biesmeijer, T. D. Breeze, L. V. Dicks, L. A. Garibaldi, R. Hill, J. Settele, A. J. Vanbergen, M. A. Aizen, S. A. Cunningham, C. Eardley, B. M. Freitas, N. Gallai, P.G. Kevan, A. Kovács-Hostyánszki, P.K. Kwapong, J. Li, X. Li., D.J. Martins, G. Nates-Parra, J.S. Pettis, R. Rader, & B. F. Viana (eds.). Bonn, Germany: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, pp. 1-30.

Isbell, L. A., & Bidner, L. R. (2016). Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) alarm calls to leopards (Panthera pardus) function as a predator deterrent. Behaviour, 153(5), 591–606.

Kahumbu, P., Martins, D., Schieltz, J. & Rubenstein, D. I. (2016) Transforming the next generation through citizen science in Kenya: The Kids’ Twiga Tally. Swara, April-June, 52-56.

Keen, S., Meliza, C. D., Pilowsky, J., & Rubenstein, D. R. (2016). Song in a social and sexual context: Vocalizations signal identity and rank in both sexes of a cooperative breeder. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 1–9.

Kibet, S., Nyangito, M., MacOpiyo, L., & Kenfack, D. (2016). Tracing innovation pathways in the management of natural and social capital on Laikipia Maasai Group Ranches, Kenya. Pastoralism, 6(1), 16.

Kimiti, D. W., Riginos, C. & Belnap, J., (2016). Low-cost grass restoration using erosion barriers in a degraded African rangeland. Restoration Ecology, 25(3), 376–384.

Kimuyu, D. M. (2016). Cattle, wildlife and fire interactions in a savanna ecosystem, Laikipia, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

King, E. G., & Franz, T. E. (2016). Combining ecohydrologic and transition probability-based modeling to simulate vegetation dynamics in a semi-arid rangeland. Ecological Modelling, 329, 41–63.

Lalampaa, P. K. (2016). Influence of holistic grazing management on herbaceous species diversity, range use pattern and livestock productivity in Laikipia County, Kenya (MSc. Thesis). University of Nairobi. 

Lalampaa, P. K., Wasonga, O. V., Rubenstein, D. I., & Njoka, J. T. (2016). Effects of holistic grazing management on milk production, weight gain, and visitation to grazing areas by livestock and wildlife in Laikipia County, Kenya. Ecological Processes, 5(1), 17.

Louthan, A. M. (2016). The relative strength of abiotic and biotic controls on species range limits (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado at Boulder.

Martins, D. J., & Collins, S. C. (2016). Pocket guide: Butterflies of East Africa. South Africa: Penguin-Random House-Struik.

Matsumoto-Oda, A., & Collins, A. D. (2016). Two newly observed cases of fish-eating in Anubis Baboons. Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 5–9.

McNally, A., Shukla, S., Arsenault, K. R., Wang, S., Peters-Lidard, C. D., Verdin, J. P. (2016). Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation & Geoinformation, 48, 96-109.

Milligan, P. D., Prior, K. M., & Palmer, T. M. (2016). An invasive ant reduces diversity but does not disrupt a key ecosystem function in an African savanna. Ecosphere, 7(10), e01502.

O’Connor, D. A., Butt, B., and Foufopoulos, J. B. (2016). Mapping the ecological footprint of large livestock overlapping with wildlife in Kenyan pastoralist landscapes. African Journal of Ecology, 54, 114–117.

Obonyo, M. O., Akoko, J. M., Orinde, A. B., Osoro, E., Boru, W. G., Njeru, I., & Fèvre, E. M. (2016). Suspected rabies in humans and animals, Laikipia County, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(3), 551–553.

Pauly, A. (2016). Description de Patellapis (Chaetalictus) mpalaensis sp. nov. et redescription de P. (C.) virungae Timmermann, 2009 de l'Afrique orientale et centrale (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology, 36: 1–11.

Porensky, L. M., & Young, T. P. (2016). Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by hotspot density and matrix type. Landscape Ecology, 31(8), 1663–1680.

Pringle, R. M., Prior, K. M., Palmer, T. M., Young, T. P., & Goheen, J. R. (2016). Large herbivores promote habitat specialization and beta diversity of African savanna trees. Ecology, 97(10), 2640–2657.

Rubenstein, D. I., Cao, Q. & Chui, J. (2016). Equids and ecological niches: behavioral and life history variations on a common theme. In J.R. Ransom & P. Kaczencky (Eds.), Wild equids: Ecology, management, and conservation (pp. 58-68). Johns Hopkins University Press.

Rubenstein, D. I., Low Mackey, B., Davidson, Z. D., Kebede, F. & King, S. R. B. (2016). Equus grevyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T7950A89624491.

Rubenstein, D. R. (2016). Superb starlings: cooperation and conflict in an unpredictable environment. In W. Koenig & J. Dickinson (Eds.), Cooperative breeding in vertebrates: Studies of ecology, evolution, and behavior (pp. 181–196). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Rubenstein, D. R., Skolnik, H., Berrio, A., Champagne, F. A., Phelps, S., & Solomon, J. (2016). Sex-specific fitness effects of unpredictable early life conditions are associated with DNA methylation in the avian glucocorticoid receptor. Molecular Ecology, 25(8), 1714–1728.

Rudolph, K. P., & McEntee, J. P. (2016). Spoils of war and peace: Enemy adoption and queen-right colony fusion follow costly intraspecific conflict in acacia ants. Behavioral Ecology, 27(3), 793–802.

Schieltz, J. M., & Rubenstein, D. I. (2016). Evidence based review: positive versus negative effects of livestock grazing on wildlife. What do we really know? Environmental Research Letters, 11(11), 113003.

Smith, D. A., Gordon, I. J., Traut, W., Herren, J., Collins, S., Martins, D. J., Saitoti, K. and Ireri, P. (2016). A neo-W chromosome in a tropical butterfly links colour pattern, male-killing, and speciation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 283(1835), 20160821.

Strandburg-Peshkin, A. (2016). From fish schools to primate societies: The dynamics of collective movement in animal groups (Doctoral dissertation). Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

Uyehara, I. K., Sisanya, M., Hemp, C., & Rubenstein, D. I. (2016). Effects of traditional pastoralism on grasshopper (Caelifera) assemblages in East Africa. African Journal of Ecology, 54(2), 167–173.

Veblen, K. E., Porensky, L. M., Riginos, C., & Young, T. P. (2016). Are cattle surrogate wildlife? Savanna plant community composition explained by total herbivory more than herbivore type. Ecological Applications, 26(6), 1610–1623.

Young, H. S., Dirzo, R., Helgen, K. M., McCauley, D. J., Nunn, C., Snyder, P., Veblen, K. E., Zhao, S. & Ezenwa, V. O. (2016). Large wildlife removal drives redistribution of immune defenses in rodents. Functional Ecology, 30, 799-807.


Apakupakul, K., and Rubenstein, D. R. (2015). Bateman’s Principle Is Reversed in a Cooperatively Breeding Bird. Biological Letters 11: 1–4.

Awuor, F. O. (2015). Impacts of Military Training on the Distribution and Abundance of Small versus Large Wildlife Herbivores on Mpala Ranch, Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology: 1–4.

Bonachela, J. A., Pringle, R. M., Sheffer, E., Coverdale, T. C., Guyton, J. A., Caylor, K. K., Levin, S. A., and Tarnita, C. E. (2015). Termite Mounds Can Increase the Robustness of Dryland Ecosystems to Climatic Change. Science 347 (6222): 17658–17659.

Costelloe, B. R., and Rubenstein, D. I. (2015). Coping with Transition : Offspring Risk and Maternal Behavioural Changes at the End of the Hiding Phase. Animal Behavior 109: 217–225.

Deem, S. L., Fèvre, E.M., Kinnaird, M., Browne, A. S., Muloi, D., Godeke, G., Koopmans, M., and Reusken, C. B. (2015). Serological Evidence of MERS-CoV Antibodies in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Laikipia County, Kenya. PloS One 10 (10): 11–15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140125.

Ford, A. T, and Goheen, J.R. (2015a). Trophic Cascades by Large Carnivores: A Case for Strong Inference and Mechanism. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 30 (12): 725–735. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2015.09.012.

Ford, A. T, and Goheen, J.R. (2015b). An Experimental Study on Risk Effects in a Dwarf Antelope, Madoqua Guentheri. Journal of Mammalogy 96 (5): 918–926. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv090.

Ford, A. T. (2015). The Mechanistic Pathways of Trophic Interactions in Human-Occupied Landscapes. Science 350 (6265).

Ford, A. T., Goheen, J.R., Augustine, D.J., Kinnaird, M., O’Brien, T.J., Palmer, T. M., Pringle, R.M. and Woodroffe, R. (2015). Recovery of African Wild Dogs Suppresses Prey but Does Not Trigger a Trophic Cascade. Ecological Society of America 96 (10): 2705–2714.

Fraser, L. H., Pither, J. Jentsch, A., Sternberg, M., Zobel, M., Askarizadeh, D., Bartha, S., et al. (2015). Worldwide Evidence of a Unimodal Relationship between Productivity and Plant Species Richness. Science 349 (6245): 302–306.

Iles, L., & Lane, P. (2015). Iron production in second millennium AD pastoralist contexts on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. Azania 50 (3):372-401.

Kartzinel, T. R., Chen, P. A., Coverdale, T. C., Erickson, D. L., Kress, W. J., Kuzmina, M. L., Rubenstein, D. I., Wang, W., and Pringle, R. M. (2015). DNA Metabarcoding Illuminates Dietary Niche Partitioning by African Large Herbivores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (26): 8019–8024. doi:10.1073/pnas.1503283112.

Larison, B., Harrigan, R. J., Thomassen, H. A., Rubenstein, D. I., Chan-Golston, A. M., Li, E., & Smith, T. B. (2015). How the zebra got its stripes: a problem with too many solutions. Royal Society Open Science, 2(1), 140452.

Mally, R., Korycinska, A., Agassiz, D. J. L., Hall, J., Hodgetts, J., and Nuss, M. (2015). Discovery of an Unknown Diversity of Leucinodes Species Damaging Solanaceae Fruits in Sub-Saharan Africa and Moving in Trade (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyraloidea). Zookeys 472: 117–162. doi:10.3897/zookeys.472.8781.

Matsumoto-Oda, A. (2015). How Surviving Baboons Behaved after Leopard Predation : A Case Report. Anthropological Science: 1–5. doi:10.1537/ase.150223.

O’Connor, D. A., Butt B., and Foufopoulos, J. B. (2015). Foraging Ecologies of Giraffe (Giraffa Camelopardalis reticulata) and Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Northern Kenya: Effects of Habitat Structure and Possibilities for Competition? African Journal of Ecology: 1–11.

Obonyo, M., Akoko, J.M., Orinde, A.B., Osoro, E., Boru, W.G., Njeru, I., & Fevre, E.M. 2016. Suspected rabies in humans and animals, Laikipia County, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases 22:551-553.

Odadi, W. O., & Rubenstein, D. I. (2015). Herd Size-Dependent Effects of Restricted Foraging Time Allowance on Cattle Behavior, Nutrition, and Performance. Rangeland Ecology & Management. 68:4, pp. 341-348.

Oriol-cotterill, A., Macdonald, D.W., Valeix, M., Ekwanga, S., and Frank, L.G. (2015). Spatiotemporal Patterns of Lion Space Use in a Human-Dominated Landscape. Animal Behaviour 101: 27–39. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.11.020.

Pennisi, E. 2015. Africa’s Soil Engineers: Termites. Science 347 (6222): 596–597.

Pollack, Lea, and Dustin R Rubenstein. (2015). “The Fitness Consequences of Kin-Biased Dispersal in a Cooperatively Breeding Bird.” Biology Letters 11.

Porensky, L. M., and Veblen, K.E. (2015). Generation of Ecosystem Hotspots Using Short-Term Cattle Corrals in an African Savanna. Rangeland Ecology and Management 68 (2): 131–141. doi:10.1016/j.rama.2015.01.002.

Riginos, C, Karande, M.A., Rubenstein, D.I., and Palmer, T.M. (2015). Disruption of a Protective Ant – Plant Mutualism by an Invasive Ant Increases Elephant Damage to Savanna Trees. Ecological Society of America 96 (3): 654–661.

Riginos, C. (2015). Climate and the Landscape of Fear in an African Savanna. Journal of Animal Ecology 84: 124–133. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12262.

Rubenstein D. I. 2015. Networks of terrestrial ungulates: linking form and function. In: Animal social networks (Krause J, James R, Franks DW & Croft DP, eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 184-196.

Rubenstein, D.I. , Berger-Wolf, T., Tantipathananandh, C., Sundaresan, S.,& Fischoff, I. (2015). Similar but Different: Dynamic Social Network Analysis Highlights Fundamental Differences between the Fission-Fusion Societies of Two Equid Species, the Onager and Grevy's Zebra. PLoS One. (10)10:e0138645 doi: 10:1371/journal.pone.0138645

Schieltz, J.M., and Rubenstein, D.I. (2015). Caught between Two Worlds: Genes and Environment Influence Behaviour of Plains and Grevy’s Zebra Hybrids in Central Kenya. Animal Behaviour 106 (106): 17–26. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.04.026.

Searchinger, T. D., Estes, L., Thornton, P. K., Beringer, T., Notenbaert, A., Rubenstein, D. I, Heimlich, R., Licker, R. & Herrero, M. (2015). High carbon and biodiversity costs from converting Africa's wet savannahs to cropland. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/nclimate2584

Strandburg-Peshkin, A., D. R. Farine, I. D. Couzin, and M. C. Crofoot. (2015). “Shared Decision-Making Drives Collective Movement in Wild Baboons.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6241): 1358–1361. doi:10.1126/science.aaa5099.

Tong, W., Shapiro, B., and Rubenstein, D. I. (2015). Genetic relatedness in two-tiered Plains Zebra societies suggests that females choose to associate with kin. Behaviour, 152(15), 2059 – 2078.



Anderson-Teixeira, K.J., S.J. Davies, A.C. Bennett, M.F. Kinnaird, et al. 2014. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change. Global Change Biology.

Brown, J.W., R.S. Copeland, L. Aarvik, S.E. Miller, M.E. Rosati, and Q. Luke. 2014. Host records for fruit-feeding Afrotropical Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). African Entomology 22(2): 343-376.

DePuy, W., V. Benka, A. Massey, S. Deem, M. Kinnaird, T. O’Brien, S. Wanyoike, J. Njoka, B. Butt, J. Foufopoulos, J. Eisenberg, R. and Hardin. 2014. Q Fever Risk Across a Dynamic, Heterogeneous Landscape in Central Kenya. 11(3): 429-433.

Dolrenry, S., J. Stenglein, L. Hazzah, R.S. Lutz, and L. Frank. 2014. Metapopulation approach to African lion (Panthera leo) conservation. PLOS ONE 9:e88081.

Ford, A.T., J.R. Goheen, T.O. Otieno, L. Bidner, L.A. Isbell, T.M. Palmer, D. Ward, R. Woodroffe, R.M. Pringle. 2014. Large carnivores make savanna tree communities less thorny. Science 346(6207): 346-349.

Kane, Adam, Andrew L Jackson, Darcy L Ogada, Ara Monadjem, Luke Mcnally, Adam Kane, Andrew L Jackson, Darcy L Ogada, Ara Monadjem, and Luke Mcnally. 2014. “Vultures Acquire Information on Carcass Location from Scavenging Eagles Vultures Acquire Information on Carcass Location from Scavenging Eagles.” Proceedings of the Royal Society 281 (September).

Kartzinel, T.R., J.R. Goheen, G.K. Charles, E. Defranco, J.E. Maclean, T. Otieno, T.M. Palmer, and R.M. Pringle. 2014. Plant and small mammal responses to large-herbivore exclusion in a semi-arid African savanna: the first five years of the UHURU experiment. Ecology 95:787.

Kaye-Zwiebel, E., and E. King. 2014. Kenyan pastoralist societies in transition: varying perceptions of the value of ecosystem services. Ecology and Society 19(3): 17.

Keesing, F. and T.P. Young. 2014. Cascading consequences of the loss of large mammals in an African savanna. Bioscience 64: 487-405.

Kendall, C.J., M.Z. Virani, J.G.C. Hopcraft, K.L. Bildstein, D.I. Rubenstein. 2014 African Vultures Don’t Follow Migratory Herds: Scavenger Habitat Use Is Not Mediated by Prey Abundance. PLoS ONE. 1:9: e83470.

Kimuyu, D.K., R.L. Sensenig, C. Riginos, K.E. Veblen and T.P. Young. 2014. Wild and domestic browsers and grazers reduce fuels, fire temperatures, and acacia ant mortality in an African savanna. Ecological Applications 24(4): 741-749.

Lekerpes, S.S., J.O. Jung’a, M.S. Badamana, and D.I. Rubenstein. 2014. Genetic Polymorphism of Beta-lactoglobulin in Kenyan Small East African Goat Breed Using PCR-RFLP and Sequencing. Journal of Animal Science 9: 233-23.

Louthan, A.M., D.F. Doak, J.R. Goheen, T.M. Palmer, and R.M. Pringle. 2014. Mechanisms of plant–plant interactions: concealment from herbivores is more important than abiotic-stress mediation in an African savannah. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281:20132647.

Ngatia, L.W., K.R. Reddy, P.K.R. Naira, R.M. Pringle, T.M. Palmer, and B.L. Turner. 2014. Seasonal patterns in decomposition and nutrient release. Agriculture, Ecosystems, & Environment 188: 12-19.

Petipas, R.H. and A.K. Brody. 2014. Termites and ungulates affect arbuscular mycorrhizal richness and infectivity in a semi-arid savanna. Botany 92: 233-240.

Pringle, R.M., J.R. Goheen, T.M. Palmer, G.K. Charles, E. Defranco, R Hohbein, A.T. Ford, and C. Tarnita. 2014. Low functional redundancy among mammalian browsers in regulating an encroaching shrub (Solanum campylacanthum) in African savanna. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281:20140390.

Riginos, C., M.A. Karande, D.I. Rubenstein, and T.M. Palmer. 2014. Disruption of a protective ant- plant mutualism by an invasive ant increases elephant damage to savanna trees. Ecology.

Roberts, B.A. and D.I. Rubenstein. 2014. Maternal tactics for mitigating neonate predation risk during the postpartum period in Thomson’s gazelle. Behavior 151(9): 1229-1248.

Scott, S.E., R.S. Copeland, M.E. Rosati and P.D.N. Hebert. 2014. DNA barcodes of Microlepidoptera reared from native fruit in Kenya. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 116: 137-142.

Shen, Sheng-feng, Erol Akçay, and Dustin R Rubenstein. 2014. “Group Size and Social Conflict in Complex Societies.” The American Naturalist 183 (2): 301–310. doi:10.1086/674378.

Tallis, H., J. Lubchenko and 238 co-signatories (including M.F. Kinnaird). 2014. A call for inclusive conservation. Nature 515(7525): 27-28.

Tarnita, C.E., T.M. Palmer, and R.M. Pringle. 2014. Colonisation and competition dynamics can explain incomplete sterilisation parasitism in ant–plant symbioses. Ecology Letters 17(10): 1290-1298.

Toth, A.B., S.K. Lyons, and A.K. Behrensmeyer. 2014. A century of change in Kenya’s mammal communities: increased richness and decreased uniqueness in six protected areas. PLoS ONE 9(4): e93092.

Weinman, Lucia R, Joseph W Solomon, and Dustin R Rubenstein. 2015. “A Comparison of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Microsatellite Markers for Analysis of Parentage and Kinship in a Cooperatively Breeding Bird.” Molecular Ecology 15: 502–511. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.12330.

Young, H. S., R. Dirzo, K. M. Helgen, D. J. McCauley, S. Billeter, M. Kosoy, L. Osikowicz, T. P. Young, and K. Dittmar. 2014. Declines in large wildlife increase landscape-level prevalence of rodent-borne disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111: 7036-7041.



Beauquier, J., P. Blanchard, J. Burman, et al. 2013. Tight complexity analysis of population protocols with cover times - The ZebraNet example. Theoretical Computer Science 512:15-27.

Bergstrom, B.J. 2013. Would East African savanna rodents inhibit woody encroachment? Evidence from stable isotopes and microhistological analysis of feces. Journal of Mammalogy 94: 436-447.

Crall, J.P., Stewart, C.V., Berger-Wolf, T.Y., Rubenstein, D. I., and Sundaresan, S.R. (2013). HotSpotter - Pattern Species Instance Recognition. IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision.

Creel, S., B. Dantzer, W. Goymann, and D. Rubenstein. 2013. The ecology of stress: effects of the social environment. Functional Ecology 27: 66-80.

Donihue, C.M., L.M. Porensky, J. Foufopoulus, C. Riginos, and R.M. Pringle. 2013. Glade cascades: indirect legacy effects of pastoralism enhance the abundance and spatial structuring of arboreal fauna. Ecology 94: 827-837.

Isbell, L.A. 2013. Erythrocebus patas Patas monkey. In: The Mammals of Africa: Vol. II Primates (J.S. Kingdon, D. Happold, T.M. Butynski, M. Hoffman, M. Happold, and J. Kalina, eds.). Bloomsbury Publishing, London, pp. 257-264.

Isbell, L.A. and Jaffe, K.L.E. 2013 Chlorocebus pygerythrus Vervet monkey. In: The Mammals of Africa: Vol II Primates (J.S. Kingdon, D. Happold, T.M. Butynski, M. Hoffman, M. Happold, and J. Kalina, eds.). Bloomsbury Publishing, London, pp. 277-283.

Isbell, L.A., J.M. Rothman, P.J. Young and K. Rudolph. 2013. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150: 286-300.

Keen, S.C., C.D. Meliza and D.R. Rubenstein. 2013. Flight calls signal group and individual identity but not kinship in a cooperatively breeding bird. Behavioral Ecology, 24: 1279-1285.

Keesing, F., B.F. Allan, T.P. Young, and R.S. Ostfeld. 2013. Effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central Kenya. Ecological Applications 23: 1410–1418.

Kirigia, A., J.T. Njoka, P.D Kinyua & T.P. Young. 2013. Characterizations of livestock manure marketing chain and the annual income contribution of manure trade in Mukogodo, Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8:5864-5871.

Lane, P.J. 2013. Trajectories to pastoralism in northern and central Kenya: an overview of the archaeological and environmental evidence. Pp. 104-144 in: M. Bollig and Hans-Peter Wotzka (eds.), Pastoralism in Africa: Past, Present and Future. Oxford: Berghahn.

Louthan, A. M., D. F. Doak, J. R. Goheen, T. M. Palmer and R. M. Pringle. 2013. Climatic stress mediates the impacts of herbivory on plant population structure and components of individual fitness. Journal of Ecology 101:1074-1083.

Maia, R., D.R. Rubenstein, and M.D. Shawkey. 2013. Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:10687-10692.

Martins, D.J. 2013. People, Plants and Pollinators: Uniting Conservation, Food Security, and Sustainable Agriculture in East Africa. Conservation Biology: Voices from the Tropics, First Edition. Navjot S. Sodhi, Luke Gibson, and Peter H. Raven. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Martins, D.J. and S.D. Johnson. 2013. Interactions between hawkmoths and flowering plants in East Africa: polyphagy and evolutionary specialization in an ecological context. Biological Journal of the Linean Society. DOI: 10.1111/bij.12107

Meliza, C.D., S.C. Keen and D.R. Rubenstein. 2013. Pitch- and spectral-based dynamic time warping methods for comparing field recordings of harmonic avian vocalizations. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134:1407-1415.

Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, T.P. Young, J.S. Lemboi, J.R. Goheen, and R.M. Pringle. In press. A role for indirect facilitation in supporting diversity in a guild of African acacia ants. Ecology 94:1531-1539.

Pilowsky, J.A. and D.R. Rubenstein. 2013. Social context and the lack of sexual dimorphism in song in an avian cooperative breeder. Animal Behaviour 85: 709-714.

Porensky, L.M. and T.P. Young. 2013. Edge-effects interactions in fragmented and patchy landscapes. Conservation Biology 27 (3): 509-519.

Porensky, L.M., S.E. Wittman, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young. 2013. Herbivory and drought interact to enhance spatial patterning and diversity in a savanna understory. Oecologia 173:591-602.

Porensky, L.M., S.F. Bucher, K.E. Veblen, A.C. Treydte, and T.P. Young. 2013. Megaherbivores and cattle alter edge effects around nutrient hotspots in an East African savanna. Journal of Arid Environments 96: 55-63.

Poulsen, J. R., C. J. Clark, and T. M. Palmer. 2013. Ecological erosion of an Afrotropical forest and potential consequences for tree recruitment and forest biomass. Biological Conservation 163: 122-130.

Prager, K C, Jonna A K Mazet, J Dubovi, Laurence G Frank, Aaron P Wagner, and Rosie Woodroofe. 2013. “Rabies Virus and Canine Distemper Virus in Wild and Domestic Carnivores in Northern Kenya: Are Domestic Dogs the Reservoir?” EcoHealth. doi:10.1007/s10393-013-0815-9.

Rota, J. and S. Miller. 2013. A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae) with Afrotropical and Australasian distribution. ZooKeys 355(2013): 29-47.

Rubin, B.E., R.M. Anderson, D. Kennedy, T.M. Palmer, and M.L. Stanton. 2013. Polygyny in the nest-site limited acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae. Insectes Sociaux 60: 231-241.

Rudolph, K. E. and T. M. Palmer. 2013. Carbohydrates as fuel for defense, foraging and colony growth – a field test with the tropical plant-ant Crematogaster nigriceps in Laikipia, Kenya. Biotropica 45:620-627.

Sankaran, S., D.J. Augustine and J. Ratnam. 2013. Native ungulates of diverse body sizes collectively regulate long-term woody plant demography and structure of a semi-arid savanna. Journal of Ecology 101:1389-1399.

Schumer, M., R. Birger, C. Tantipathananandh, J. Aurisano, M. Maggioni, and P. Mwangi. 2013. Infestation by a common parasite is correlated with ant symbiont identity in a plant-ant mutualism. Biotropica 45:276-279.

Soderberg, K., S. P. Good, M. O’Connor, L. Wang, K. Ryan, and K. K. Caylor. 2013. Using atmospheric trajectories to model the isotopic composition of rainfall in central Kenya. Ecosphere 4(3): 33.

Veblen, K.E. 2013. Impacts of traditional livestock corrals on woody plant communities in an East African savanna. Rangeland Journal 35: 349-353.

Veiga, J.P., Wamiti, W., Polo, V. and Muchai, M. 2013. Interaction between distant taxa in the use of tree cavities in African ecosystems: a study using nest-boxes. Journal of Tropical Ecology 29:187-197.

Wilkerson, M.L., L. Roche & T.P. Young. 2013. Indirect effects of domestic and native herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna. Ecology and Evolution 3:3672-3682.

Young, H. S., D. J. McCauley, K. M. Helgen, E. Otarola-Castillo, J. R. Goheen, T. M. Palmer, R. M. Pringle, T. P. Young and R. Dirzo. 2013. Effects of mammalian herbivore declines on plant communities: Observations and experiments in an African savanna. Journal of Ecology 101:1030-1041.

Yusuf, A.A., I. Gordon, R.M. Crewe, and C.W.W. Pirk. 2013. Prey choice and raiding behavior of the Ponerine ant Pachycondyla analis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 48: 3445-358.

Yusuf, A.A., R.M. Crewe, and C.W.W. Pirk. 2013. An effective method for maintaining the African termite-raiding ant Pachycondyla analis in the laboratory. African Entomology 21(2): 132-136.

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Gadd, M.E., Young, T.P., Palmer, T.M. 2001. Effects of simulated shoot and leaf herbivory on vegetative growth and plant defense in Acacia drepanolobium. Oikos 92: 515-521.

Garraffo, H.M., Spande, T.F., Jain, P., et al. 2001. Ammonia chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry in structural determination of alkaloids. II. Tetraponerines from pseudomyrmecine ants. Rapid Communications in Mass SPectometry 15: 1409-1415.

Keesing, F., Crawford, T. 2001. Impacts of density and large mammals on space use by the pouched mouse (Saccostomus mearnsi) in central Kenya. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 465-472.

Khaemba, W.M., Stein, A., Rasch, D., De Leeuw, J., Georgiadis, N. 2001. Empirically simulated study to compare and validate sampling methods used in aerial surveys of wildlife populations. African Journal of Ecology 39: 374-382.

Mathy, J.M., Isbell, L.A. 2001. The relative importance of size of food and interfood distance in eliciting aggression in captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta). Folia Primatologica 72: 268-277.

Metz, M.R., Keesing, F. 2001. Dietary choices of the pouched mouse (Saccostomus mearnsi) in central Kenya. Biotropica 33: 182-187.

Miller, S.E., Lazell, J.D. 2001. A herpetological reconnaissance of Mpala Research Centre, Laikipia, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 90: 103-107.

Miller, S.E., Rogo, L.M. 2001. Challenges and opportunities in understanding and utilization of African insect diversity. Cimbebasia 17: 197-218.

Okello, B.D., O’Connor, T.G., Young, T.P. 2001. Growth, biomass estimates, and charcoal production of Acacia drepanolobium in Laikipia, Kenya. Forest Ecology and Management 142: 143-153.

Roca, A.L., Georgiadis, N., Pecon-Slattery, J., O’Brien, S.J. 2001. Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa. Science 293: 1473-1477.

Vogel, G. 2001. African elephant species splits in two. News of the Week. Science 293: 1414.



Ezzati, M., Mbinda, B.M., Kammen, D.M. 2000. Comparison of emissions and residential exposure from traditional and improved cookstoves in Kenya. Environmental Science and Technology 34: 578-583.

Ezzati, M., Saleh, H., Kammen, D.M. 2000. The contributions of emissions and spatial microenvironments to exposure to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in Kenya. Environmental Health Perspectives 108: 833-839.

Keesing, F. 2000. Cryptic consumers and the ecology of an African savanna. BioScience 50: 205-215.

Okello, B.D., Young, T.P. 2000. Effects of fire, bruchid beetles and soil type on germination and seedling establishment of Acacia drepanolobium. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 17: 46-51.

Palmer, T.M., Young, T.P., Stanton, M.L., Wenk, E. 2000. Short-term dynamics of an acacia ant community in Laikipia, Kenya. Oecologia 123: 425-435.

Pruetz, J.D., Isbell, L.A. 2000. Correlations of food distribution and patch size with agonistic interactions in female vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in simple habitats. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 49: 38-47.

Young, T.P. 2000. Restoration ecology and conservation biology. Biological Conservation 92: 73-83.



Greenwood, A.D., Capelli, C., Possnert, G., Paabo, S. 1999. Nuclear DNA sequences from Late Pleistocene megafauna. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16: 1466-1473.
Isbell, L.A., Pruetz, J.D., Lewis, M., Young, T.P. 1999. Rank differences in ecological behavior: a comparative study of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops). International Journal of Primatology 20: 257-272.

Isbell, L.A., Pruetz, J.D., Nzuma, B.M., Young, T.P. 1999. Comparing measures of travel distances in primates: Methodological considerations and socioecological implications. American Journal of Primatology 48: 87-98.

Stanton, M.L., Palmer, T.M., Young, T.P., Evans, A., Turner, M.L. 1999. Sterilization and canopy modification of a swollen thorn acacia tree by a plant-ant. Nature 401: 578-581.



Isbell, L.A. 1998. Diet for a small primate: insectivory and gummivory in the (large) patas monkey (Erythroocebus patas pyrrhonotus). American Journal of Primatology 45: 381-398.

Isbell, L.A., Pruetz, J.D. 1998. Differences between vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in agonistic interactions between adult females. International Journal of Primatology 19: 837-855.

Isbell, L.A., Pruetz, J.D., Lewis, M., Young, T.P. 1998. Locomotor activity differences between sympatric patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops): implications for the evolution of long hindlimb length in Homo. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 105: 199-207.

Isbell, L.A., Pruetz, J.D., Young, T.P. 1998. Movements of vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) as estimators of food resource size, density, and distribution. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 42: 123-133.

Keesing, F. 1998. Ecology and behavior of the pouched mouse, Saccostomus mearnsi, in central Kenya. Journal of Mammalogy 79: 919-931.

Keesing, F. 1998. Impacts of ungulates on the demography and diversity of small mammals in central Kenya. Oecologia 116: 381-389.

McNaughton, S.J., Stronach, N.R.H., Georgiadis, N.J. 1998. Combustion in natural fires and global emissions budgets. Ecological Applications 8: 464-468.

Young, T.P., Okello, B.D. 1998. Relaxation of an induced defense after exclusion of herbivores: spines on Acacia drepanolobium. Oecologia 115: 508-513.

Young, T.P., Okello, B.D., Kinyua, D., & Palmer, T.M. 1998. KLEE: a long-term multi-species herbivore exclusion experiment in Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 14: 94-104.



Young, T.P., Stubblefield, C.H., Isbell, L.A. 1997. Ants on swollen-thorn acacias: species coexistence in a simple system. Oecologia 109: 98-107.



Isbell, L.A., Van Vuren, D. 1996. Differential costs of locational and social dispersal and their consequences for female group-living primates. Behaviour 133: 1 – 36.



Young, T.P. 1995. Landscape mosaics created by canopy gaps, forest edges and bushland glades. Selbyana 16: 127-134.

Young, T.P., Partridge, N., Macrae, A. 1995. Long-term glades in acacia bushland and their edge effects in Laikipia, Kenya. Ecological Applications 5: 97-108.